The Nobel Prizes
Every year since 1901 the Nobel Prize has been awarded for achievements in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and for peace. The Nobel Prize is an international award administered by the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm, Sweden. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize. Each prize consists of a medal, personal diploma, and a cash award.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012 was awarded jointly to Serge Haroche (FR) and David J. Wineland (US) for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems”
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012 was awarded jointly to Robert J. Lefkowitz (US) and Brian K. Kobilka (US) “for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 was awarded jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon (GB) and Shinya Yamanaka (JP) “for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2012 was awarded to Mo Yan (CN) “who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary”.
The Nobel Peace Prize 2012 was awarded to European Union (EU)
“for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe”.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012 was awarded jointly to Alvin E. Roth (US) and Lloyd S. Shapley (US)
“for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design”