Shooting of Michael Brown
The shooting of Michael Brown occurred on August 9, 2014, in Ferguson, Missouri, United States. Brown was an unarmed, 18-year-old African-American male, killed after being shot multiple times by an unnamed Ferguson police officer. The incident sparked protests and acts of vandalism in the St. Louis suburb, as well as national calls for an investigation.
Brown, who had recently graduated from high school, was days away from starting college and had no criminal record.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) opened a civil rights investigation of the shooting on August 11, and the next day U.S. President Barack Obama issued a statement expressing condolences to Brown’s family, also committing federal resources to conduct an investigation.
On Saturday, August 9, at around 2:00 p.m., Michael Brown, 18, and Dorian Johnson, 22, both African American men, were walking to Brown’s grandmother’s house. A Ferguson police officer drove up to them and ordered them to move off the street and onto the sidewalk. An altercation ensued, and a gun within the police officer’s vehicle was fired, after which Brown and Johnson began to flee. The officer left his vehicle and pursued them, then fired an unspecified number of shots, fatally wounding Brown. Brown died approximately 35 feet (11 m) from the police cruiser. Johnson was not injured.
On August 10, Jon Belmar, chief of the St. Louis County Police Department, announced that their department would be in charge of the investigation, after receiving a request from Ferguson Police Chief Tom Jackson to investigate the shooting. When the investigation is complete, the St. Louis County police will turn over the case to St. Louis County Prosecuting Attorney Robert P. McCulloch, who will determine whether or not charges need to be filed.
The Ferguson Police department declined to name the officer involved in the shooting, citing concerns for his safety and refused to commit to a deadline for releasing a full autopsy report. On August 11, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) opened a parallel civil rights investigation into the incident, and Attorney General Eric Holder instructed the Justice Department staff to monitor the developments.
According to the spokeswoman for the FBI’s St. Louis field office, the protests and riots played no role in the FBI’s decision to investigate.
On August 10, a day of vigils began peacefully, but some crowd members started to behave in an unruly manner after the candlelight vigil. Local police stations assembled approximately 150 officers in riot gear. The crowd then began looting businesses, vandalizing vehicles and confronting police who sought to block off access to several areas of the city. At least 12 businesses were looted or vandalized, a gas station was set on fire, leading to over 30 arrests. Many windows were broken and several nearby businesses closed on Monday. The people arrested face charges of assault, burglary and theft. Police used a variety of equipment, including riot gear and helicopters, to disperse the crowd by 2 a.m. Two police officers suffered minor injuries during the events.
On August 11, police fired tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse a crowd at the shell of the QuikTrip convenience store burnt out the night before. According to reports, gunshots were fired in Ferguson and five people were arrested. Wome protesters allegedly threw rocks at police. The police responded by firing tear gas and bean bag rounds upon those protesting, including State Senator Maria Chappelle-Nadal. Between August 12 and 13, police officers fired tear gas and rubber bullets at lines of protesters and reporters. At least seven protesters were arrested on the evening of August 12 and 13, after police told protesters to “‘go home’ or face arrest.” CNN cameras filmed an officer addressing a group of protestors by saying “Bring it, you fucking animals, bring it.” According to The Washington Post, the Ferguson Police Department “bears little demographic resemblance” to the mostly African-American community, which already harbored “suspicions of the law enforcement agency” preceding Brown’s shooting. An annual report last year by the office of Missouri’s attorney general concluded that Ferguson police were “twice as likely to arrest African Americans during traffic stops as they were whites.”
On August 12, several hundred protestors gathered in Clayton, the county seat, seeking criminal prosecution of the officer involved in the shooting. Protestors in Ferguson carried signs and many held their hands in the air while shouting “don’t shoot”. According to police, some protestors threw bottles at the officers, prompting the use of tear gas to disperse the crowd. The following day, a heavily-armed SWAT team of around 70 officers arrived at a protest demanding that protesters disperse. On the night of August 13, police used smoke bombs, flash grenades, rubber bullets, and tear gas to disperse the crowd. Video footage of the events recorded by KARG Argus Radio shows Ferguson Police firing tear gas into a residential neighborhood and ordering the journalist to cease recording.
Monday, August 11, 2014
Statement by Attorney General Holder on Recent Shooting Incident in Ferguson, Missouri
Attorney General Eric Holder released the following statement Monday regarding the shooting incident that took place Saturday afternoon in Ferguson, Missouri:
“The shooting incident in Ferguson, Missouri this weekend deserves a fulsome review. In addition to the local investigation already underway, FBI agents from the St. Louis field office, working together with attorneys from the Justice Department’s Civil Rights Division and US Attorney’s Office, have opened a concurrent, federal inquiry. The federal investigation will supplement, rather than supplant, the inquiry by local authorities. At every step, we will work with the local investigators, who should be prepared to complete a thorough, fair investigation in their own right. I will continue to receive regular updates on this matter in the coming days. Aggressively pursuing investigations such as this is critical for preserving trust between law enforcement and the communities they serve.”
President Obama Issues a Statement on the Death of Michael Brown
David Hudson August 12, 2014 05:02 PM EDT
This afternoon, President Obama issued a statement on the death of 18-year-old Michael Brown, who was fatally shot on Saturday by a police officer in Ferguson, Missouri:
The death of Michael Brown is heartbreaking, and Michelle and I send our deepest condolences to his family and his community at this very difficult time. As Attorney General Holder has indicated, the Department of Justice is investigating the situation along with local officials, and they will continue to direct resources to the case as needed. I know the events of the past few days have prompted strong passions, but as details unfold, I urge everyone in Ferguson, Missouri, and across the country, to remember this young man through reflection and understanding. We should comfort each other and talk with one another in a way that heals, not in a way that wounds. Along with our prayers, that’s what Michael and his family, and our broader American community, deserve.
August 14, 2014
President Obama Statement on Displaced Iraqis and Shooting in Ferguson, Missouri
Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts
I want to address something that’s been in the news over the last couple of days and that’s the situation in Ferguson, Missouri. I know that many Americans have been deeply disturbed by the images we’ve seen in the heartland of our country, as police have clashed with people protesting. Today, I’d like us all to take a step back and think about how we’re going to be moving forward.
This morning, I received a thorough update on the situation from Attorney General Eric Holder, who has been following it and been in communication with his team. I’ve already tasked the Department of Justice and the FBI to independently investigate the death of Michael Brown, along with local officials on the ground.
The Department of Justice is also consulting with local authorities about ways that they can maintain public safety without restricting the right of peaceful protest and while avoiding unnecessary escalation. I made clear to the Attorney General that we should do what is necessary to help determine exactly what happened, and to see that justice is done.
I also just spoke with Governor Jay Nixon of Missouri. I expressed my concern over the violent turn that events have taken on the ground, and underscored that now is the time for all of us to reflect on what’s happened, and to find a way to come together going forward. He is going to be traveling to Ferguson. He is a good man and a fine governor, and I’m confident that, working together, he is going to be able to communicate his desire to make sure that justice is done and his desire to make sure that public safety is maintained in an appropriate way.
Of course, it’s important to remember how this started. We lost a young man, Michael Brown, in heartbreaking and tragic circumstances. He was 18 years old. His family will never hold Michael in their arms again. And when something like this happens, the local authorities –- including the police -– have a responsibility to be open and transparent about how they are investigating that death, and how they are protecting the people in their communities.
There is never an excuse for violence against police, or for those who would use this tragedy as a cover for vandalism or looting. There’s also no excuse for police to use excessive force against peaceful protests, or to throw protestors in jail for lawfully exercising their First Amendment rights. And here, in the United States of America, police should not be bullying or arresting journalists who are just trying to do their jobs and report to the American people on what they see on the ground. Put simply, we all need to hold ourselves to a high standard, particularly those of us in positions of authority.
I know that emotions are raw right now in Ferguson and there are certainly passionate differences about what has happened. There are going to be different accounts of how this tragedy occurred. There are going to be differences in terms of what needs to happen going forward. That’s part of our democracy. But let’s remember that we’re all part of one American family. We are united in common values, and that includes belief in equality under the law; a basic respect for public order and the right to peaceful public protest; a reverence for the dignity of every single man, woman and child among us; and the need for accountability when it comes to our government.
So now is the time for healing. Now is the time for peace and calm on the streets of Ferguson. Now is the time for an open and transparent process to see that justice is done. And I’ve asked that the Attorney General and the U.S. Attorney on the scene continue to work with local officials to move that process forward. They will be reporting to me in the coming days about what’s being done to make sure that happens.
Thanks very much, everybody.
12:58 P.M. EDT
Thursday, August 14, 2014 doj.gov
Statement by Attorney General Eric Holder on Latest Developments in Ferguson, Missouri
Attorney General Eric Holder released the following statement Thursday following his meeting earlier today with President Obama to discuss the latest developments in Ferguson, Missouri:
“This morning, I met with President Obama to discuss the events in Ferguson, Missouri. Like the President, I extend my heartfelt condolences to the family of Michael Brown. While his death has understandably caused heartache within the community, it is clear that the scenes playing out in the streets of Ferguson over the last several nights cannot continue.
“For one thing, while the vast majority of protests have been peaceful, acts of violence by members of the public cannot be condoned. Looting and willful efforts to antagonize law enforcement officers who are genuinely trying to protect the public do nothing to remember the young man who has died. Such conduct is unacceptable and must be unequivocally condemned.
“By the same token, the law enforcement response to these demonstrations must seek to reduce tensions, not heighten them. Those who peacefully gather to express sympathy for the family of Michael Brown must have their rights respected at all times. And journalists must not be harassed or prevented from covering a story that needs to be told.
“At a time when we must seek to rebuild trust between law enforcement and the local community, I am deeply concerned that the deployment of military equipment and vehicles sends a conflicting message. At my direction, Department officials have conveyed these concerns to local authorities. Also at my direction, the Department is offering – through our COPS office and Office of Justice Programs – technical assistance to local authorities in order to help conduct crowd control and maintain public safety without relying on unnecessarily extreme displays of force. The local authorities in Missouri have accepted this offer of assistance as of this afternoon.
Attorney General Eric Holder Delivers Remarks at the St. Louis FBI Field Office
United States ~ Wednesday, August 20, 2014
We have brought to this area very experienced prosecutors, we have very experienced agents who are handling this matter, and doing so, I think, in a fine way.
I’m going to get briefed on more of the details about the investigation. I’ve been kept up to date, but there’s nothing that can replace actually coming to the office that’s handling the matter, and being able to look in the face the people who are, I think at this point, very ably handling this investigation.
Now, our investigation is different from that which the state is doing. We are looking for violations of federal, criminal civil rights statutes, which is different from what the local investigation is.
We have brought a substantial number of people here, of agents here, who have done a great job in the canvassing that they did over the past weekend, and continue to follow leads so that we can do a thorough and a fair job of making a determination about what happened on August the ninth. And I’m confident that through the ability of these people, we will be able to make a determination about whether or not any federal statutes have in fact been violated.
My hope also is that through the trip that I’m making out here today and by expressing the importance of the way in which this investigation is going, that hopefully will have a calming influence on the area, if people know that a federal, thorough investigation is being done–is being manned by these very capable people. My hope is that that will have—give people some degree of confidence that the appropriate things are being done by their federal government.
Again, we are doing something different, okay, than that which the state is doing–than what the county prosecutors are doing. But nevertheless, I think that what we are doing, hopefully, will have a positive impact.
White House aides to attend Michael Brown funeral
August 24 at 5:45 AM By Associated Press
EDGARTOWN, Mass. — President Barack Obama is sending three White House aides to the funeral of Michael Brown, the young black man whose fatal shooting by a white police officer sparked days of racial unrest in Ferguson, Missouri.
Leading the group for Monday’s service will be the chairman of the My Brother’s Keeper Task Force, Broderick Johnson. My Brother’s Keeper is an Obama initiative that aims to empower young minorities.
Also attending will be the deputy director of the White House Office of Public Engagement, Marlon Marshall, and an adviser for the office, Heather Foster.
BREAKING: Ferguson Cop Not Indicted For Michael Brown Shooting
NOVEMBER 24, 2014, 9:26 PM EST By DYLAN SCOTT – tpm
A St. Louis County grand jury has decided not to indict Ferguson, Mo., police officer Darren Wilson on any criminal charges in the Aug. 9 shooting of 18-year-old Michael Brown.
The nationally televised announcement is the climax to a story that has captivated the nation and amplified racial tensions, with fierce clashes between protesters and police in a majority black town with a largely white police force. The incident and its aftermath resurfaced America’s long complicated history with race, violence, and law enforcement.
St. Louis County prosecutor Bob McCulloch began the announcement with a detailed explanation of the investigation, at times criticizing the media’s “insatiable appetite” in following the case and “non-stop rumors on social media.”
“The duty of the grand jury is to separate fact from fiction,” he said. “They are the only people who have heard and examined every witness and every piece of evidence.”
The Brown family issued a statement, saying they were “profoundly disappointed” with the decision, while calling for peaceful protests.
“We are profoundly disappointed that the killer of our child will not face the consequence of his actions,” the family said. “While we understand that many others share our pain, we ask that you channel your frustration in ways that will make a positive change. We need to work together to fix the system that allowed this to happen.”
About an hour later, President Barack Obama made a statement, urging for calm, even as nationally television broadcasts aired split screens of the already tense protests with protesters attempting to overturn a police car, reports of gunfire and gas being deployed.
“I join Michael’s parents in asking anyone who protests this decision to do so peacefully. Let me repeat Michael’s father’s words. Hurting others or destroying property is not the answer,” Obama said. “No matter what the grand jury decides, I do not want my son’s death to be in vain. I want to lead to incredible change, positive change.”
Remarks by the President After Announcement of the Decision by the Grand Jury in Ferguson, Missouri
James S. Brady Press Briefing Room
10:08 P.M. EST
THE PRESIDENT: As you know, a few moments ago, the grand jury deliberating the death of Michael Brown issued its decision. It’s an outcome that, either way, was going to be subject of intense disagreement not only in Ferguson, but across America. So I want to just say a few words suggesting how we might move forward.
First and foremost, we are a nation built on the rule of law. And so we need to accept that this decision was the grand jury’s to make. There are Americans who agree with it, and there are Americans who are deeply disappointed, even angry. It’s an understandable reaction. But I join Michael’s parents in asking anyone who protests this decision to do so peacefully. Let me repeat Michael’s father’s words: “Hurting others or destroying property is not the answer. No matter what the grand jury decides, I do not want my son’s death to be in vain. I want it to lead to incredible change, positive change, change that makes the St. Louis region better for everyone.” Michael Brown’s parents have lost more than anyone. We should be honoring their wishes.
I also appeal to the law enforcement officials in Ferguson and the region to show care and restraint in managing peaceful protests that may occur. Understand, our police officers put their lives on the line for us every single day. They’ve got a tough job to do to maintain public safety and hold accountable those who break the law. As they do their jobs in the coming days, they need to work with the community, not against the community, to distinguish the handful of people who may use the grand jury’s decision as an excuse for violence — distinguish them from the vast majority who just want their voices heard around legitimate issues in terms of how communities and law enforcement interact.
Finally, we need to recognize that the situation in Ferguson speaks to broader challenges that we still face as a nation. The fact is, in too many parts of this country, a deep distrust exists between law enforcement and communities of color. Some of this is the result of the legacy of racial discrimination in this country. And this is tragic, because nobody needs good policing more than poor communities with higher crime rates. The good news is we know there are things we can do to help. And I’ve instructed Attorney General Holder to work with cities across the country to help build better relations between communities and law enforcement.
That means working with law enforcement officials to make sure their ranks are representative of the communities they serve. We know that makes a difference. It means working to train officials so that law enforcement conducts itself in a way that is fair to everybody. It means enlisting the community actively on what should be everybody’s goal, and that is to prevent crime.
And there are good people on all sides of this debate, as well as in both Republican and Democratic parties, that are interested not only in lifting up best practices — because we know that there are communities who have been able to deal with this in an effective way — but also who are interested in working with this administration and local and state officials to start tackling much-needed criminal justice reform.
So those should be the lessons that we draw from these tragic events. We need to recognize that this is not just an issue for Ferguson, this is an issue for America. We have made enormous progress in race relations over the course of the past several decades. I’ve witnessed that in my own life. And to deny that progress I think is to deny America’s capacity for change.
Federal Ferguson Investigation Will Remain Independent, Holder Insists
November 25, 201410:02 AM ET Carrie Johnson- NPR
This post was updated at 5:30 p.m. ET
Attorney General Eric Holder says “far more must be done to create enduring trust” between police and communities they serve, even as his Justice Department continues to investigate possible discriminatory police actions in Ferguson, Mo.
Civil rights lawyers at Justice working alongside FBI agents have also been examining whether white officer Darren Wilson intentionally violated the civil rights of 18-year-old Michael Brown, the unarmed black man he shot dead Aug. 9.
On Tuesday, Holder spoke about the DOJ’s ongoing efforts emphasizing that both federal investigations will “continue to be thorough, continue to be independent and they remain ongoing.”
He did not provide a timeline for the investigations, but said they “will be conducted rigorously and in a timely manner so that we can move forward as expeditiously as we can to restore trust, to rebuild understanding, and to foster cooperation between law enforcement and community members.”
Proving that Wilson, who was cleared Monday by a St. Louis County grand jury, violated federal criminal law will be difficult, DOJ veterans say.
But in the aftermath of the local grand jury announcement, Holder has insisted the federal probe of the policeman is ongoing and independent of St. Louis prosecutors.
“And although federal civil rights law imposes a high legal bar in these types of cases, we have resisted forming premature conclusions,” Holder said in a statement Monday.
Mediators from the Justice Department Community Relations Service have been on the ground in Ferguson trying to ease tensions since August. And the DOJ community-oriented policing unit has been trying to train local law enforcement to respect protesters and de-escalate tensions. Scattered violence and scenes of burning businesses in the area overnight Monday mean that work is far from complete.
Justice Department lawyers are making slow but steady progress on another facet of their task in Ferguson: investigating allegations of unconstitutional policing by law enforcement there.
Holder tipped his hand last month, publicly calling for “wholesale changes” in the Ferguson force. His DOJ investigators have opened more than two-dozen investigations into biased policing tactics and patterns of excessive force in places from Albuquerque to New Orleans to Newark.
Such cases often end in lawsuits or court-enforceable agreements to change hiring, training and traffic stop actions.
Vanita Gupta, the acting leader of the civil rights division at Justice, said at a news conference last month that the goal of such cases is to “ensure that the city has an effective, accountable police department that controls crime, ensures respect for the Constitution, and earns the respect of the public it is charged with protecting.”
Holder also said Tuesday he was disappointed that some reacted with violence rather than heeding the call for non-violence issued by Brown’s parents.
For the entire article and audio interview: http://www.npr.org/blogs/itsallpolitics/2014/11/25/366527106/federal-ferguson-investigation-will-remain-independent-holder-insists
Attorney General Eric Holder made the following statement today on the ongoing situation in Ferguson, Missouri.
“Good afternoon. I have been briefed by members of the Justice Department and I wanted to provide a brief update of the Justice Department’s ongoing efforts arising from the events in Ferguson, Missouri. I’ve been briefed today by the COPS director, Ron Davis, Principal Deputy Associate Attorney General Molly Moran, Deputy Assistant Attorney General Mark Kappelhoff and members of my staff, all of whom are here with me now.
“They are overseeing the federal investigations into the shooting of Michael Brown as well as the investigation that we are doing of the Ferguson Police Department. I want to emphasize that we have two investigations that are ongoing. As I’ve said many times before and reiterated in my statement last night, the department’s investigations will continue to be thorough, they will continue to be independent and they remain ongoing. They will be conducted rigorously and in a timely manner so we can move forward as expeditiously as we can to restore trust, to rebuild understanding and to foster cooperation between law enforcement and community members.
“Last night and throughout the day, I have been briefed on events in and around Ferguson. I was disappointed that some members of the community resorted to violence rather than respecting what I thought were the really heartfelt words of Michael Brown Sr. and the wishes he expressed about how he wanted his son’s memory to be honored with nonviolence. It is clear that acts of violence threaten to drown out those that have legitimate voices, legitimate demonstrators and those acts of violence cannot and will not be condoned.
“By contrast, I’m very encouraged that some of the more peaceful demonstrations last night as well as today have occurred and have been in keeping with Mr. Brown’s request. I would remind demonstrators of our history that those, the way in which we have made progress in this country is when we have seen peaceful, nonviolent demonstrations that has led to the change that has been the most long lasting and the most pervasive.
“I’ve asked the COPS director, Ron Davis, to continue to confer with local law enforcement and to conduct an after action review so we can develop strategies for identifying and isolating the criminal elements from peaceful protesters. Additionally, I have instructed department officials to continue to make contact with leaders of the peaceful protesters and to seek their assistance in isolating those individuals who are inclined towards violence. We’ve had a good ongoing dialogue with peaceful demonstrators in Ferguson. I’ve been very heartened to hear about the good work that our community relations service has done as well as people under Mark in particular. And I’ve instructed them to maintain those levels of communications and keep those avenues of communications open.
“I really embrace those who have been proactively intervening to stop acts of violence within their midst and I encourage them to continue to exercise this important leadership. I know that that is not an easy thing to do but it was very heartening to hear about people last night trying to stop those other people who were trying to loot and trying to destroy businesses and burn things. Those people who took it upon themselves to try to stop those kinds of things are in fact heroes in my mind.
“Michael Brown’s tragic death has revealed a deep distrust between some in the Ferguson community and its police force. It also developed a need to develop and widely disseminate law enforcement best practices for responding to public demonstrations. The Department of Justice has begun this work and will continue to work with communities around the country in this regard. The reality is that what we see in Ferguson is not restricted to Ferguson. There are other communities around this country that have these same issues that have to be dealt with and we at the Justice Department are determined to do all that we can to bridge those divides.
President Obama remarks on “Black Lives Matter” is a social media movement
“ I want to drive home one point, and that is the relationship between race and the criminal justice system, because this is where sometimes politics intrudes.
“Black Lives Matter” is a social media movement that had tried to gel around Ferguson and the Eric Gardner case and some other cases that came up. And very rapidly, it was posited as being in opposition to the police. And sometimes, like any of these loose organizations, some people pop off and say dumb things. And on the other hand, though, it started being lifted up as these folks are opposed to police and they’re opposed to cops, and all lives matter. So the notion was somehow saying black lives matter was reverse racism, or suggesting that other people’s lives didn’t matter, police officers’ lives didn’t matter.
And whenever we get bogged down in that kind of discussion, we know where that goes. That’s just down the old track. So let me just suggest this. I think everybody understands all lives matter. Everybody wants strong, effective law enforcement. Everybody wants their kids to be safe when they’re walking to school. Nobody wants to see police officers, who are doing their job fairly, hurt. Everybody understands it’s a dangerous job.
I think the reason that the organizers used the phrase “Black lives matter” was not because they said they were suggesting nobody else’s lives matter; rather, what they were suggesting was there is a specific problem that is happening in the African American community that’s not happening in other communities. And that is a legitimate issue that we’ve got to address.
I forget which French writer said there was a law that was passed that really was equal because both rich and poor were forbidden from stealing loaves of bread and sleeping under the bridge. That’s not a good definition of equality.
There is a specific concern as to whether African Americans are sometimes not treated in particular jurisdictions fairly or subject to excessive force more frequently. I think it’s important for those who are concerned about that to back it up with data, not anecdote; to not paint with a broad brush; to understand the overwhelming majority of law enforcement is doing the right thing and wants to do the right thing; to recognize that police officers have a really tough job and we’re sending them into really tough neighborhoods that sometimes are really dangerous, and they’ve got to make split-second decisions. And so we shouldn’t be too sanctimonious about situations that sometimes can be ambiguous.
But having said all that, we as a society, particularly given our history, have to take this seriously. And one of the ways of avoiding the politics of this and losing the moment is everybody just stepping back for a second and understanding that the African American community is not just making this up, and it’s not just something being politicized; it’s real and there’s a history behind it. And we have to take it seriously. And it’s incumbent then on the activist to also take seriously the tough job that police have. And that’s one of the things that the post-Ferguson task force did. We had activists who were marching in Ferguson with police chiefs and law enforcement, sitting down and figuring this stuff out.
And just assuming good faith in other people — going to the issue of people being cynical — I think is important. I’ve rarely gotten much accomplished assuming the worst in other people. Usually it works better if I assume the best. So I just wanted to make that point.’
- August 15, 2015 President Barack Obama Weekly Address: Continuing Work to Improve Community Policing
- August 9, 2015 President Obama’s NPR interview on the anniversary of Ferguson
- August 7, 2015 US Attorney General Loretta Lynch: Ferguson ‘Opened the Eyes of America’
- May 18, 2015 10 Cities Making Real Progress Since the Launch of the 21st Century Policing Task Force
- March 4, 2015 Attorney General Holder Delivers Update on Investigations in Ferguson, Missouri
- March 1, 2015 Justice Department to Fault Ferguson Police, Seeing Racial Bias in Traffic Stops
- December 8, 2014 BET Exclusive: Obama Talks Race, Racism and How Far America Has to Go
- December 3, 2014 Statement by Attorney General Holder on Federal Investigation Into Death of Eric Garner
- December 02, 2014 President Obama’s plan on Following Through After Ferguson
- December 01, 2014 President Obama holds discussion on the situation in Ferguson, Missouri, with his Cabinet, civil rights leaders, law enforcement officials and others at the White House
- December 01, 2014 U.S. Attorney General announces plan to target racial profiling
- November 24, 2014 President Obama After Announcement of the Decision by the Grand Jury in Ferguson, Missouri
- October 22, 2015 President Obama remarks on “Black Lives Matter” is a social media movement
US Minorities Civil Rights Timeline 1863-1963 (ProPresObama.org Civil Rights Timelines ™)
US Minorities Civil Rights Timeline 1964-2016 (ProPresObama.org Civil Rights Timelines ™)
“Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere”
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail, April 16, 1963