Freedom Rides – 55th Anniversary

1961 Freeom Rides1961 Freedom Riders Map

Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960),  which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional.The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them. The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961,  and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.

Boynton outlawed racial segregation in the restaurants and waiting rooms in terminals serving buses that crossed state lines. Five years prior to the Boynton ruling, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) had issued a ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company that had explicitly denounced the Plessy v. Ferguson doctrine of separate but equal in interstate bus travel. The ICC failed to enforce its ruling, and Jim Crow travel laws remained in force throughout the South.

The Freedom Riders challenged this status quo by riding interstate buses in the South in mixed racial groups to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation in seating. The Freedom Rides, and the violent reactions they provoked, bolstered the credibility of the American Civil Rights Movement. They called national attention to the disregard for the federal law and the local violence used to enforce segregation in the southern United States. Police arrested riders for trespassing, unlawful assembly, and violating state and local Jim Crow laws, along with other alleged offenses, but they often first let white mobs attack them without intervention.

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) sponsored most of the subsequent Freedom Rides, but some were also organized by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The Freedom Rides followed dramatic sit-ins against segregated lunch counters, conducted by students and youth throughout the South, and boycotts of retail establishments that maintained segregated facilities, beginning in 1960.

The Supreme Court’s decision in Boynton supported the right of interstate travelers to disregard local segregation ordinances. Southern local and state police considered the actions of the Freedom Riders as criminal and arrested them in some locations. In some localities, such as Birmingham, Alabama, the police cooperated with Ku Klux Klan chapters and other whites opposing the actions and allowed mobs to attack the riders.

For more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_Rides
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US Minorities Civil Rights Timeline 1863-1963 (ProPresObama.org Civil Rights Timelines ™)

US Minorities Civil Rights Timeline 1964-2016 (ProPresObama.org Civil Rights Timelines ™)

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16 thoughts on “Freedom Rides – 55th Anniversary

  1. WH

    Monday, May 2, 2016

    All Times Eastern

    President Obama receives the presidential daily briefing

    President Obama attends meetings at the White House

    7:00 AM
    8:00 AM
    9:00 AM
    10:00 AM
    11:00 AM
    12:00 PM
    12:30 PM
    White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest briefs the press

    1:00 PM
    2:00 PM
    2:45 PM
    President Obama is interviewed by local television anchors participating in “Live from the White House”
    Diplomatic Room

    3:00 PM
    4:00 PM
    5:00 PM
    6:00 PM
    7:00 PM
    8:00 PM
    9:00 PM
    10:00 PM

  2. Freedom Rides

    Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional.The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them. The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.

    Boynton outlawed racial segregation in the restaurants and waiting rooms in terminals serving buses that crossed state lines. Five years prior to the Boynton ruling, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) had issued a ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company that had explicitly denounced the Plessy v. Ferguson doctrine of separate but equal in interstate bus travel. The ICC failed to enforce its ruling, and Jim Crow travel laws remained in force throughout the South.

    The Freedom Riders challenged this status quo by riding interstate buses in the South in mixed racial groups to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation in seating. The Freedom Rides, and the violent reactions they provoked, bolstered the credibility of the American Civil Rights Movement. They called national attention to the disregard for the federal law and the local violence used to enforce segregation in the southern United States. Police arrested riders for trespassing, unlawful assembly, and violating state and local Jim Crow laws, along with other alleged offenses, but they often first let white mobs attack them without intervention.

    The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) sponsored most of the subsequent Freedom Rides, but some were also organized by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The Freedom Rides followed dramatic sit-ins against segregated lunch counters, conducted by students and youth throughout the South, and boycotts of retail establishments that maintained segregated facilities, beginning in 1960.

    The Supreme Court’s decision in Boynton supported the right of interstate travelers to disregard local segregation ordinances. Southern local and state police considered the actions of the Freedom Riders as criminal and arrested them in some locations. In some localities, such as Birmingham, Alabama, the police cooperated with Ku Klux Klan chapters and other whites opposing the actions and allowed mobs to attack the riders.

    For more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_Rides

  3. 2:45 PM ET
    President Obama is interviewed by local television anchors participating in “Live from the White House”
    Diplomatic Room

  4. The Weight of One Mission: Recounting the Death of Usama bin Laden, Five Years Later

    MAY 2, 2016 AT 2:15 PM ET BY NICK RASMUSSEN

    Summary: Nick Rasmussen, Director of the National Counterterrorism Center, recounts the Usama bin Laden raid and the moments leading up to it.

    Five years ago, I watched in the Situation Room along with President Obama, Vice President Biden, and members of the President’s national security team to see if U.S. Special Operations Forces could deliver the justice that every American had been waiting for for a decade.

    In the three-plus months leading up to the operation, the White House’s National Security Council staff organized over two dozen inter-agency meetings to oversee preparations and consider all of the attendant issues: the evaluation of the emerging intelligence, possible operational courses of action, the consequences and implications of both success and failure.

    What struck me most about that process was the absolute attention to operational security, discretion, and secrecy. Very few individuals beyond the most senior officials were involved in the policy piece of this operation. Extraordinary measures were taken to limit information flow, and those involved maintained an incredibly high degree of discipline.

    For more: https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2016/05/02/weight-one-mission-recounting-death-usama-bin-laden-five-years-later

  5. WH

    Tuesday, May 3, 2016

    All Times Eastern

    President Obama receives the presidential daily briefing

    President Obama attends meetings at the White House

    Vice President Biden meets with President Salvador Sánchez-Cerén of El Salvador, President Jimmy Morales of Guatemala, and President Juan Orlando Hernández of Honduras

    7:00 AM
    8:00 AM
    9:00 AM
    10:00 AM
    11:00 AM
    12:00 PM
    12:45 PM
    White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest briefs the press

    1:00 PM
    2:00 PM
    First Lady and Dr. Biden Celebrate the Fifth Anniversary of Joining Forces on the Voice
    Universal Studios, Los Angeles, California

    3:00 PM
    President Obama meets with Secretary of State Kerry
    Oval Office

    4:00 PM
    4:30 PM
    President Obama honors the 2016 National Teacher of the Year and other finalists
    East Room

    First Lady delivers remarks of the Fifth Anniversary of Joining Forces
    Thayer Elementary School, Fort Leonard Wood Army Base, Missouri

    5:00 PM
    6:00 PM
    7:00 PM
    8:00 PM
    9:00 PM
    10:00 PM

    • POTUS podium

      May 3, 2016

      WhiteHouse.gov http://www.whitehouse.gov/live

      12:45 PM ET
      White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest briefs the press

      4:30 PM ET
      President Obama honors the 2016 National Teacher of the Year and other finalists
      East Room

      —-

      CSPAN http://www.cspan.org/

      9:00 AM ET
      George Washington University
      Cybersecurity
      National security and counterterrorism experts talked about a variety of cybersecurity topics, including counterintelligence efforts, insider threats, Homeland Security Department organization, and private-public security partnerships. http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/409023-1

      12:00 PM ET
      Consumer Awareness Project | Protect My Data
      Credit Card Chip Technology
      Consumer advocacy organization Protect My Data hosted a discussion on credit card security and the transition to chip technology. http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/409022-1

      12:45 PM ET
      White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest briefs the press http://www.c-span.org/video/?409039-1/white-house-briefing

      4:30 PM ET
      President Obama honors the 2016 National Teacher of the Year and other finalists

      1:30 PM ET
      Center for Strategic and International Studies
      Transportation of Hazardous Materials
      Marie Therese Dominguez, administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Administration (PHMSA), talked about safety concerns with oil and natural gas pipelines and the transportation of hazardous materials. http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/409026-1

      1:45 PM ET
      Clinton (Hillary) Presidential Campaign
      Hillary Clinton Campaign Event in Athens, Ohio
      Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton spoke with supporters about jobs and the economy at a campaign event in Athens, Ohio. http://www.c-span.org/video/?409021-1/hillary-clinton-meet-supporters-athens-ohio

      3:00 PM ET
      Brookings Institution
      Foreign Corporate Tax Reform
      The Brookings Institution hosted a discussion on changes to tax policies in several countries and how these reforms could affect corporate tax rates for U.S. companies. http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/409024-1

      3:30 PM ET
      Wilson (Woodrow) International Center for Scholars
      North Korea’s Ruling Party Congress
      The Wilson Center hosted a discussion on the upcoming congressional meeting held by North Korea’s ruling party, the Korean Workers Party, for the first time in 36 years. http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/409025-1

      7:00 PM ET
      Indiana Primary Night Coverage
      C-SPAN’s coverage of the Indiana presidential presidential primaries included election results as well as victory and concession speeches from the candidates http://www.c-span.org/video/?408947-1/indiana-primary-night-coverage

      7:30 PM ET
      Sanders Presidential Campaign
      Senator Bernie Sanders Primary Night Speech
      Democratic presidential candidate Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT) spoke to supporters at a campaign rally in Louisville, Kentucky, as polls closed in the Indiana primary elections. http://www.c-span.org/video/?409018-1/bernie-sanders-address-supporters-louisville-kentucky

  6. World Press Freedom Day

    The United Nations General Assembly declared May 3 to be World Press Freedom Day or just World Press Day to raise awareness of the importance of freedom of the press and remind governments of their duty to respect and uphold the right to freedom of expression enshrined under Article 19 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and marking the anniversary of the Declaration of Windhoek, a statement of free press principles put together by African newspaper journalists in 1991.

    UNESCO marks World Press Freedom Day by conferring the UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize on a deserving individual, organization or institution that has made an outstanding contribution to the defence and/or promotion of press freedom anywhere in the world, especially when this has been achieved in the face of danger. Created in 1997, the prize is awarded on the recommendation of an independent jury of 14 news professionals. Names are submitted by regional and international non-governmental organizations working for press freedom, and by UNESCO member states.

    For more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Press_Freedom_Day

    • May 3, 2016

      Statement by NSC Spokesperson Ned Price on World Press Freedom Day

      On World Press Freedom Day, we thank the journalists around the world without whom democracy could not flourish and whose courageous work helps hold authorities to account. These are the men and women who work to ensure that debate on public issues can be, in the words of Justice William Brennan, “uninhibited, robust, and wide open.” Through such debate we make the choices that shape our lives and the world around us.

      While it is in the nature of responsible journalism to confront the powerful, the corrupt, and the brutal, too many journalists risk their liberty and even their lives in doing so. From China to Iran to Venezuela, brave men and women languish in prison for no greater crime than seeking to inform their fellow citizens. The United States calls for the release of those who have been imprisoned for exercising the freedom of expression that is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even as we encourage governments to foster societies in which journalists can work freely and without fear. And we pay special tribute to the reporters, including our fellow Americans, who have given their lives or their freedom to tell the stories of those who live under the shadow of war. For those who remain in captivity, such as American journalist Austin Tice, we pledge that we will not relent in our efforts to secure their release.

      On World Press Freedom Day, and every day, these women and men deserve our thanks for their risks and sacrifices, and for bringing us nearer to the more peaceful, accountable, innovative and successful societies to which we aspire.

  7. May 3, 1948

    Shelley v. Kraemer, 334 U.S. 1 (1948), is a landmark United States Supreme Court case which held that courts could not enforce racial covenants on real estate.

    Facts of the case
    In 1945, an African-American family by the name of Shelley purchased a house in St. Louis, Missouri. At the time of purchase, they were unaware that a restrictive covenant had been in place on the property since 1911. The restrictive covenant prevented “people of the Negro or Mongolian Race” from occupying the property. Louis Kraemer, who lived ten blocks away, sued to prevent the Shelleys from taking possession of the property. The Supreme Court of Missouri held that the covenant was enforceable against the purchasers because the covenant was a purely private agreement between the original parties thereto. As such, it “ran with the land” and was enforceable against subsequent owners. Moreover, because it ran in favor of an estate rather than merely a person, it could be enforced against a third party. A materially similar scenario took place in the companion case McGhee v. Sipes from Detroit, Michigan, where the McGhees purchased land subject to a similar restrictive covenant. The Supreme Court consolidated both cases for oral arguments.

    For more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shelley_v._Kraemer

  8. Connecticut Teacher of the Year takes national honor

    April 28, 2016 By Linda Conner Lambeck – ctpost

    Jahana Hayes says she always pushes her students to try new things.

    This will be the year for the Waterbury social studies teacher to step out of her comfort zone as the Nation’s 2016 Teacher of the Year.

    Hayes was announced Thursday for the top honor by the Council of Chief State School Officers. She will be recognized by President Barack Obama at a White House ceremony on Tuesday.

    Hayes, who teaches at John F. Kennedy High School in Waterbury, was named the Connecticut Teacher of the Year earlier this year from among a group of finalists that also included Shaun Mitchell, a teacher at Central High School in Bridgeport, and Dylan Connor, a teacher at Bunnell High School in Stratford.

    Hayes will spend a year traveling the nation to represent educators and advocate on behalf of teachers. She said in an interview with Hearst Media News that sees herself as a voice for both teachers and students in her new role.

    For more; http://www.ctpost.com/local/article/Connecticut-Teacher-of-the-Year-takes-national-7381736.php

    • May 03, 2016

      Remarks by the President at the 2016 National Teacher of the Year Celebration

      East Room

      4:35 P.M. EDT

      THE PRESIDENT: Thank you. Well, welcome to the White House. (Applause.) And thank you, Jahana, for that wonderful introduction. Everybody please give the National Teacher of the Year a big round of applause. (Applause.) It’s a little surprising that she got this award because you can tell she’s a little shy — (laughter) — and lacks enthusiasm. (Laughter.) And yet somehow she seems to be performing pretty well in the classroom. (Laughter.) Look at that smile.

      So for seven years, I’ve stood in the White House with America’s finest public servants and private-sector innovators and our best advocates and our best athletes and our best artists, and I have to tell you there are few moments that make me prouder than this event when I stand alongside our nation’s best educators. (Applause.)

      Every year on this day, we say publicly as a country what we should be eager to say every day of the year, and that is: Thank you. That’s what this event is about. That’s why it’s one of my favorites. It’s a good day with all of you guys here in Washington to say thank you for the extraordinary work that teachers do all across the country. It’s also, I guess, a pretty good day for substitute teachers because we got a lot of folks — (laughter) — we got a lot of folks playing hooky today. (Laughter.) This is a school day. (Laughter.)

      For more: https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2016/05/03/remarks-president-2016-national-teacher-year-celebration

  9. May 02, 2016

    Remarks by the First Lady and Dr. Biden Celebrating the Fifth Anniversary of Joining Forces on the Voice

    Universal Studios
    Los Angeles, California

    5:02 P.M. PDT

    MRS. OBAMA: Thank you! Oh, it’s great to be here.

    MR. DALY: By the way, throughout our studio audience tonight, our country’s finest active-duty servicemen and women, veterans and their families. Welcome, all of you, and thank you so much also for being here tonight. (Applause.) Special night for us here at The Voice. And I want to say welcome to the both of you again. It is so great to have you here.

    MRS. OBAMA: Thanks so much, Carson. It’s great to be here.

    DR. BIDEN: We’re thrilled to be here.

    MR. DALY: Well, your Joining Forces initiative is celebrating its fifth anniversary, and, as we all know, May is Military Appreciation Month. It’s only because of our military’s service and sacrifice that we all have a voice.

    MRS. OBAMA: Carson, we are so excited to be kicking off this anniversary with all of you at The Voice. And we are particularly excited to be here with these extraordinary military families! (Applause.) Absolutely.

    Over the past five years, through Joining Forces, Jill and I have had the privilege of traveling across this country and around the world to meet our troops, veterans and our military families. And we are just in awe of them. We’re in awe of their courage and their patriotism.

    For more: https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2016/05/02/remarks-first-lady-and-dr-biden-celebrating-fifth-anniversary-joining

  10. White House poised to create first monument to gay rights

    May 3 at 5:52 PM By Juliet Eilperin – washingtonposy

    President Obama is poised to declare the first-ever national monument recognizing the struggle for gay rights, singling out a sliver of green space and part of the surrounding Greenwich Village neighborhood as the birthplace of America’s modern gay liberation movement.

    While most national monuments have highlighted iconic wild landscapes or historic sites from centuries ago, this reflects the country’s diversity of terrain and peoples in a different vein: It would be the first national monument anchored by a dive bar and surrounded by a warren of narrow streets that long has been regarded the historic center of gay cultural life in New York City.

    Federal officials, including Interior Secretary Sally Jewell, National Park Service Director Jonathan B. Jarvis and Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D-N.Y.), will hold a listening session on May 9 to solicit feedback on the proposal. Barring a last-minute complication — city officials are still investigating the history of the land title — Obama is prepared to designate the area part of the National Park Service as soon as next month, which commemorates gay pride.

    Protests at the site, which lasted for several days, started in the early morning of June 28, 1969 after police raided the Stonewall Inn, which was frequented by gay men. While patrons of the bar, which is still in operation today, had complied in the past with these crackdowns, that time it sparked a spontaneous riot by bystanders and those who had been detained.

    For more: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/white-house-poised-to-create-first-monument-to-gay-rights/2016/05/03/0811810e-1154-11e6-93ae-50921721165d_story.html?hpid=hp_no-name_no-name:page/breaking-news-bar

  11. May 03, 2016

    Remarks by the First Lady and Levar Burton in Addressing Children on Base as Part of the Fifth Anniversary of Joining Forces

    Thayer Elementary School
    Fort Leonard Wood Army Base, Missouri

    3:38 P.M. CDT

    MRS. OBAMA: Well, look at you guys! What’s going on?

    CHILDREN: Nothing.

    MRS. OBAMA: Nothing? Have you been sitting in this gym for a long time? (Laughter.) My goodness. Well, blame the grown-ups. (Laughter.) We are not the grown-ups. Why didn’t you let them out? (Laughter.) Are you guys having fun, though?

    CHILDREN: Yes!

    MRS. OBAMA: We are so excited to be here, to be able to read to you guys. Reading is — to kids is one of my favorite things. My kids are grown now — they’re not grown, but they don’t want me to read to them. So thank you for letting me read to you.

    MR. BURTON: So who would like to hear a story? This one is called “The Rhino Who Swallowed a Storm.” And I always like to give an author’s name — in this case, the author is LeVar Burton, one of my favorite authors. (Laughter.) And my co-writer was Susan Schaefer Bernardo. And the illustrations, which I think are beautiful, are by Courtenay Fletcher. Are you ready?

    CHILDREN: Yes!

    MR. BURTON: Are you ready?

    CHILDREN: Yes!

    For more: https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2016/05/03/remarks-first-lady-and-levar-burton-addressing-children-base-part-fifth

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    THIS POST IS NOW CLOSED NBLB

    Come on over to my newest post titled: ”President Obama Meets with Flint Citizens ″

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